ECOsmarte™ Science Summary
Copyright 1994 - 1999, ECOsmarte Planet Friendly, Inc.

ECOsmarte is attempting to patent a group of water treatment technologies using the appropriate combinations of electronic oxidation, copper ionization and specific world class filtration technologies developed by industry leaders.

Electronic Oxidation:
Using standard residential current (USA and International 220v 50 cycle; 240v 50 cycle available), Ecosmarte circuitry transforms the power to low D.C. voltage and low amperage on its titanium electrodes, which have a proprietary noble metals coating. Water purifies from the water molecule itself. OH hydroxyl ion, atomic oxygen (01) and trace ozone (O3) are generated in gas form within the sealed pressure line to oxidize the water without using sodium or chemical. 40-80 grams per minute of hydroxyl radicals are created from the water ( at 20 gpm flow) and are noted on the following Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) Chart, as accepted by most chemistry text books:

OXIDATION REDUCTION POTENTIAL (ORP)
(ECOsmarte Oxidizers in Bold)

ChemicalSymbolOPR Relative Value
FlourineF2.25
Hydroxyl RadicalOH2.05
Atomic OxygenO11.78
OzoneO31.52
Hydrogen PeroxideH2O21.30
PermanganateKMn21.22
Hypochlorous AcidH2CL1.10
Chlorine (Gas)CL1.0
OxygenO2.94
Sodium HypochloriteNaCL2.69
BromineBr.57

Each ECOsmarte oxidizer is more powerful than sodium hypochlorite, the dominant form of chlorine. The titanium shows no evidence of corrosion, wear or noble metal coating breakdown on installations dating to 1993, and Ecosmarte includes the titanium electrode pair in the 5 year warranty on the product. Polarity is reversed alternating cathode and anode, allowing for self-cleaning of all Ecosmarte electrodes.

SPECIFIC TARGET OXIDATION APPLICATIONS
Uric Acid, Bacteria, Virus: Swimming Pool 6.5 pH - 7.4 pH
Iron, Manganese, Hydrogen Sulfide: Well Water 6.4 pH - 8.0 pH to 12 ppm
(No chemical regeneration or supplement required.)

The electrodes further oxidize and change the chemical form of nitrites, nitrates and sulfates in well water. Specific removal under wide parameters has occurred with hydrogen sulfide, magnesium sulphate. No chemical regeneration of the filter media is required, and it rinses or backwashes with the source water.

Copper Ionization:
Ecosmarte uses conventional copper ionization (without silver) in two different ways in its technology (110 CU grade or better.):

Point-of-Entry:
In both residential and commercial applications between .2 ppm and .5ppm trace ionization is placed constantly in the water flow. Most water pipe size applications have been addressed. When used with Ecosmarte electronic oxidation, calcium is kept in the soft bicarbonate form in standing pressure lines, and at fixtures. The heat point required to precipitate calcium in the carbonate form is increased substantially. Ecosmarte has specific successful history to 30 grains of hardness, (510 ppm) with a TDS level as high as 3000. No pH histories above 8.4 have been tested. PH levels of 5.2 to 8.3 are therefore required. Ecosmarte manufactures low and high TDS water models for Point-of-Entry equipment, recognizing that the conductivity of the water completes the circuit.

Spas and Swimming Pools:
Ecosmarte uses ionization in trace residual amounts for spa and swimming pool applications. Double positive charged ionic copper (Cu++) is kept at .4 to .5 ppm residual requiring ionization for a maximum of 15 minutes per week on a 600 gallon spa and 4 hours per week on a 24,000 gallon swimming pool. No constant introduction of copper occurs and the residual sanitizer in the pool is recognized by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Ecosmarte 30VA control box offers a choice of oxidation, ionization or on/off all swimming pool equipment.

Commercial and Industrial:
Sophisticated copper ionization only systems are available for all industrial and agricultural applications, specifically but not limited to: heating and cooling systems, food and beverage, dispensing waste water treatment, agricultural drip irrigation, overhead spray systems and vapor mist, and chemical spray applications for herbicides and pesticides. Ionization lowers the surface tension of the water, yielding less chemical usage. Calcium is managed in bicarbonate form CA2H(CO3) to 155°F under methods testing approved by ETL/EPA Labs and developed by Ecosmarte™ in 1995. Alkalinity of the water is also primarily bicarbonate, reducing corrosion tendencies. These principles are consistent with Langlier theory, though not widely known in the water industry.

Ecosmarte provides the benefits, without the environmental health costs associated with chemicals.
Ecosmarte Anodyne Oxygen Process and Ozone are the only known disinfectants that have the Oxidation potential to be effective against the water borne pathogen, cryptosporidium. The main advantage of the Ecosmarte process and ozone is, they do not create health threatening by-products such as Dioxins, Trihalomenthanes (THMs) and haloactic acids that are created by Chlorination.

Ecosmarte Anodyne process produces a more powerful and effective non-chemical method of water treatment than ozone. Ecosmarte generates more oxygen radicals in one minute than most ozonators can generate in one hour (40-80 grams). Ecosmarte Anodyne process is a proprietary water purification technology that provides much greater oxidation potential than ozone. To give comparison of oxidizing potential, if chlorine is the benchmark, than ozone is exponentially more effective than chlorine and Ecosmarte Anodyne process would be exponentially and logarithmically more powerful than chlorine.

The Anodyne Oxygen Process:
Water is 88% oxygen and 12% hydrogen. By the use of low voltage electricity applied to water, the simple process of electrolysis causes the electro-physical separation of water into oxygen O1 and hydrogen which then forms Hydroxyl radicals OH. Ecosmarte Anodyne process creates a combination of the most powerful oxidizers available for water disinfection, at a grams per minute level not available with ozonation.

Advantages of the Anodyne Process When Chlorine is Present:
The primary benefit to the Anodyne process is, oxidation benefits are obtained prior to Chlorination or bromination. Consequently, most of the oxidation and disinfection will be performed by the oxidizers created from the Anodyne process. Unfortunately, many public waters require halogen residuals under city, county or state laws.

The real benefit in these chemical residual waters, the oxidizers with the anodyne process do not promote the information of halogenated by-products, organic or inorganic contaminants ( including halomines.) In addition, the detrimental effects of halogenation can be diminished or eliminated entirely by the Anodyne process.

Additional benefits are: Reduced odors, reduced skin and eye irritation and eliminates the use of anti-chlorine shampoos. The pretreated water is blue not green and possesses remarkable clarity. Only the waters are treated and disinfected, not the swimmer. When properly used, the anodyne process reduces or eliminates the bathtub ring and produces other ascetic benefits. The bottom line is the anodyne process will lower chemical costs due to lowering the amount of chlorine or halogens which must be added to obtain the required residual. In turn, this will lower the amount of chemicals which must be added to maintain the pH and water balance. Ecosmarte has several hundred applications experiences and estimates chemical reduction of 50-90%, depending on pool housekeeping, local climate, and application.

The Structure of Water:
Water is an extremely stable compound. It does not easily decompose and it does not readily ionize. Water (H20) is composed of 2 parts hydrogen and 1 part oxygen.

Hydrogen:
When hydrogen exists in a stable or balanced form, two atoms are joined together. This is elemental hydrogen gas, shown symbolically as H2. The two hydrogen atoms in hydrogen gas share two electrons.

Oxygen:
When oxygen is in its balanced form it is O2, or elemental oxygen gas with 8 protons, 8 neutrons, and 8 electrons.

Each oxygen atom now shares 4 electrons with the other atom.

Water Molecule:
In a water molecule, composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, the hydrogen and oxygen atoms are combined and are sharing electrons.

Arrangement of equilibrium positions of the positive and negative charges in water a molecule.

Ionization:
When electricity is applied to water, electrolysis and ionization occurs. One of the hydrogen ions breaks away from the water molecule, the hydrogen atom now has only a proton and no electron. By losing a negative electron it has become a positive charged ion.

Ionization of Water:
When the hydrogen ion breaks away, the second hydrogen atom and the oxygen atom remain together, sharing 10 electrons. This results in one extra negative, because the combination has one more electron than proton. This now is a single negative charged hydroxide or hydroxyl ion.

Ions:
An atom that has acquired an electrical or electrostatic charge is called an ion and can be considered ionized.

Ionized atoms can be negatively or positively charged.

An ionized atom may have one or more positive or negative electrical charges. This happens when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons, thus changing the electrical balance between the protons and the electrons.

Anions:
Negative ionized atoms are anions and have one or more electrons than they have protons.

Cations:
Positive ionized atoms are cations and have one or more protons than they have electrons. An atom does not lose protons it loses or gains electrons.

Ions in the Body:
Virtually all reactions in biological systems are ionic and essential to plant and animal life.

Everything in water and in living organisms function by electrochemical reactions. Muscles react to electro-chemical stimulation.

Most chemicals, minerals, and metals dissolved in water are electrically charged in an ionic form.

Electrically charged Water:
Ions dissolved in water make water a good conductor of electricity and they are termed electrolytes.

Electrolytic Conductivity:
The measurement of conductivity of water is used to determine ionic contamination.

As an example, a sodium ion is positively charged and a chlorine ion is negatively charged. When combined, they become table salt, with a balanced electrical charge. When salt is dissolved in distilled water the sodium becomes a positive ion and the chloride becomes a negative ion and the water becomes conductive. The symbol for chlorine is Cl, and the symbol for a chlorine ion is Cl-.

Table 1. Common ions in natural water The chemical symbol for an ion includes a plus or minus sign to indicate the unbalanced charge. Cations Anions calcium Ca++ bicarbonates HCO3- magnesium Mg++ chloride Cl- sodium Na+ sulfate S04- - iron Fe++ nitrate NO3- manganese Mn++ carbonate CO3- - copper Cu++ phosphate PO4-

Ionization Potential:Is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom. Ionization potential is expressed in Volts.

Electromotive Force Series:An arrangement of elements in order of their decreasing potential for ionization.

THE ELECTROMOTIVE SERIES

Electrode Potential, V
At 25 for 1 MOLAL
Metal-Ion Concentration
MagnesiumMg2+-2.34
AluminumA13+-1.67
ZincZn2+-0.76
ChromiumCr3+-0.71
IronFe2+-0.44
CadmiumCd2+-0.40
NickelNi2+-0.25
TinSn2+-0.14
LeadPb2+-0.13
HydrogenH+0.00
CopperCu3++0.34
SilverAg++0.80
PalladiumPd2++0.83
MecuryHg2++0.85
PlatinumPt2++1.20
GoldAu2++1.42

Electronegativity:Electronegativity was introduced by Linus Pauling in 1932 and is described by him as "the strength at which an electron is held by an atom in a bond," or further defined as: the tendency of an atom to acquire a negative charge.

Electronegativity is: a measure of electrostatic force or ionic potential of an elements' effective nuclear charge on its surface. Metals are considered to be cations bonded together by a cement of mobile electrons.

Electronegativity differentiates the power of one element and its ability to displace or be displaced in an ionic solution by another element of equal positive or negative charge.

RELATIVE ELECTRONEGATIVITIES OF SOME ELEMENTS

(Relative Compactness Scale)
H3.55k 0.42Rb0.36 Cs0.28
Li0.74Ca 1.22Sr1.06 Ba0.78
Be2.39Zn 3.00Cd2.59 Hg2.93
B2.93Ga 3.28In2.84 T1(I)1.89
--- -Sn(II)2.31 --
C3.79Ge 3.59Sn(IV)3.09 T1(III)3.02
N4.49As 3.90Sb(IV)3.34 Pb(II)2.38
O5.21Se 4.21Te3.59 Pb(IV)3.08
F5.75Br 4.53I3.84 Bi3.16
Na0.70- --- --
MG1.56Sc 1.30Y1.05 La0.88
Al2.22Ti 1.40Zr1.10 Hf1.05
Si2.84V 1.60Nb1.36 Ta1.21
P3.43Cr 1.88Mo1.62 W1.39
S4.12Mn 2.07Tc1.80 Re1.53
Cl4.93Fe 2.10Ru1.95 Os1.67
--Co 2.10Rh2.10 Ir1.78
--Ni 2.10Pd2.29 Pt1.91
--Cu 2.60Ag2.57 Au2.57

*Values for the transitional elements are tentative estimates only.

Electron Affinity:
The degree of electronegativity, or the extent to which an atom holds valence electrons compared to other atoms of the chemical molecule. The differentiation at this point is like comparing apples to apples: 1. Two identical apples in identical size and appearance yet one outweighs the other because of greater density. 2. Two unequal sized apples, each weighing the same because of varying density. Electronegativity is the variable factor that allows for one Ion of apparent equal value to displace another.

Microbiological Control

Microorganisms vary greatly in form, color, and habits, as well as in size. The variety is enormous. In one classification alone, the Diatomacea, it is estimated there are over 10,000 species, each of which has its own distinctive shape, pattern or design. Some microorganisms live only in sunlight, others thrive in the dark: some are aerobic requiring oxygen for their existence, others are anaerobic and grow in the absence air. They may be mobile or nonmobile. Microorganisims grow, in cold or hot water and even under ice. Microorganisms when introduced in water supplies, cause a variety of problems, many form coatings on piping, reducing flow and restricting valves, pumps, nozzles, or parts of the water distribution system. Filters and water softener media may be contaminated and operation impaired. In over 95% of well water installs to date, ECOsmarte™ has effectively controlled mircro organizims using low level ionization and oxygenating the water with the titanium oxidation electrode.

Disagreeable tastes and odors, may be produced either from living microorganisms or their decomposition. Discoloration and staining may be caused by microorganisms, primarily molds and slimes , these growths are difficult to control and exceedingly troublesome as reinfection often occurs. These growths need not be in the source water and may be seeded from the air or other sources. Well water containing iron manganese or sulfur, frequently, have associated bacteria which cause extremely troublesome and clogging growths. Sulfur waters frequently have thread-like growths, which appear on aerators and watering trays. These waters contain elemental sulfur often in colloidal form. This sulfur may be due to the oxidation of the hydrogen sulfide and action by sulfate reducing bacteria, which reduce sulfates to sulfides, and are often responsible for the production of black water.

Destruction, or Prevention of Microorganisms Treatment with Ionization and copper Ions produce kill rates for the following microorganisms at the following dosages in concentrations measured in parts per million. No scientific evidence exists that micro organisms are developing immunity to copper ions as has been well documented with various forms of chlorines.

Chlorophyceane

Copper ppm rqd
Cladophora0.50
Closterium 0.17
Coelastrum 0.05 - 0.33
Conferva 0.25
Desmidium 2.00
Draparnaldia 0.33
Eudorins 10.00
Entomgplprn 0.50
Hydrodictyon 0.10
Microspora 0.40
Palmella 2.00
Pandorina 10.00
Raphidiiun 1.00
Scenedesmus 1.00
Spirogyra 0.12
Starastrom 1.50
Ulothrix 0.20
Volvox 0.25
Zygnema 0.60
Protozoa Bursaria
Ceratium 0.33
Chlamydomonos 0.50
Cryptomonas 0.50
Dinobryan 0.18
Euglena 0.50
Glenodinium 0.50
Mallomonas 0.50
Peridinium 0.50 - 2.00
Synura 0.12 - 0.25
Uroglena 0.05 - 0.20
Fungus
Leptornitus 0.40
Sappolagnia 0.18
Miscellaneous
Chara 0.10 - 0.50
Nitella, flexilis 0.10 - 0.18
Potamogeton 0.30 - 0.80
Diatoms
Asterionella 0.12 - 0.20
Fragilaria 0.25
Melosira 0.20
Navicitia 0.07
Nitzchia 0.50
Synedra 0.36 - 0.50
Stepbanodiwus 0.33
Tabellaiia 0.12 - 0.50