Copyright 1994 - 1999, ECOsmarte Planet Friendly, Inc.
ECOsmarte is attempting to patent a group of water treatment technologies using the appropriate combinations of electronic oxidation, copper ionization and specific world class filtration technologies developed by industry leaders.
Each ECOsmarte oxidizer is more powerful than sodium hypochlorite, the dominant form of chlorine. The titanium shows no evidence of corrosion, wear or noble metal coating breakdown on installations dating to 1993, and Ecosmarte includes the titanium electrode pair in the 5 year warranty on the product. Polarity is reversed alternating cathode and anode, allowing for self-cleaning of all Ecosmarte electrodes.
The electrodes further oxidize and change the chemical form of nitrites, nitrates and sulfates in well water. Specific removal under wide parameters has occurred with hydrogen sulfide, magnesium sulphate. No chemical regeneration of the filter media is required, and it rinses or backwashes with the source water.
Spas and Swimming Pools:
Commercial and Industrial:
Ecosmarte provides the benefits, without the environmental health costs associated with chemicals.
Ecosmarte Anodyne process produces a more powerful and effective non-chemical method of water treatment than ozone. Ecosmarte generates more oxygen radicals in one minute than most ozonators can generate in one hour (40-80 grams). Ecosmarte Anodyne process is a proprietary water purification technology that provides much greater oxidation potential than ozone. To give comparison of oxidizing potential, if chlorine is the benchmark, than ozone is exponentially more effective than chlorine and Ecosmarte Anodyne process would be exponentially and logarithmically more powerful than chlorine.
The Anodyne Oxygen Process:
Advantages of the Anodyne Process When Chlorine is Present:
The real benefit in these chemical residual waters, the oxidizers with the anodyne process do not promote the information of halogenated by-products, organic or inorganic contaminants ( including halomines.) In addition, the detrimental effects of halogenation can be diminished or eliminated entirely by the Anodyne process.
Additional benefits are: Reduced odors, reduced skin and eye irritation and eliminates the use of anti-chlorine shampoos. The pretreated water is blue not green and possesses remarkable clarity. Only the waters are treated and disinfected, not the swimmer. When properly used, the anodyne process reduces or eliminates the bathtub ring and produces other ascetic benefits. The bottom line is the anodyne process will lower chemical costs due to lowering the amount of chlorine or halogens which must be added to obtain the required residual. In turn, this will lower the amount of chemicals which must be added to maintain the pH and water balance. Ecosmarte has several hundred applications experiences and estimates chemical reduction of 50-90%, depending on pool housekeeping, local climate, and application.
The Structure of Water:
Each oxygen atom now shares 4 electrons with the other atom.
Arrangement of equilibrium positions of the positive and negative charges in water a molecule.
Ionization of Water:
Ionized atoms can be negatively or positively charged.
An ionized atom may have one or more positive or negative electrical charges. This happens when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons, thus changing the electrical balance between the protons and the electrons.
Ions in the Body:
Everything in water and in living organisms function by electrochemical reactions. Muscles react to electro-chemical stimulation.
Most chemicals, minerals, and metals dissolved in water are electrically charged in an ionic form.
Electrically charged Water:
As an example, a sodium ion is positively charged and a chlorine ion is negatively charged. When combined, they become table salt, with a balanced electrical charge. When salt is dissolved in distilled water the sodium becomes a positive ion and the chloride becomes a negative ion and the water becomes conductive. The symbol for chlorine is Cl, and the symbol for a chlorine ion is Cl-.
Table 1. Common ions in natural water The chemical symbol for an ion includes a plus or minus sign to indicate the unbalanced charge. Cations Anions calcium Ca++ bicarbonates HCO3- magnesium Mg++ chloride Cl- sodium Na+ sulfate S04- - iron Fe++ nitrate NO3- manganese Mn++ carbonate CO3- - copper Cu++ phosphate PO4-
Ionization Potential:Is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom. Ionization potential is expressed in Volts.
Electromotive Force Series:An arrangement of elements in order of their decreasing potential for ionization.
Electronegativity:Electronegativity was introduced by Linus Pauling in 1932 and is described by him as "the strength at which an electron is held by an atom in a bond," or further defined as: the tendency of an atom to acquire a negative charge.
Electronegativity is: a measure of electrostatic force or ionic potential of an elements' effective nuclear charge on its surface. Metals are considered to be cations bonded together by a cement of mobile electrons.
Electronegativity differentiates the power of one element and its ability to displace or be displaced in an ionic solution by another element of equal positive or negative charge.
RELATIVE ELECTRONEGATIVITIES OF SOME ELEMENTS(Relative Compactness Scale)
*Values for the transitional elements are tentative estimates only.
The degree of electronegativity, or the extent to which an atom holds valence electrons compared to other atoms of the chemical molecule. The differentiation at this point is like comparing apples to apples: 1. Two identical apples in identical size and appearance yet one outweighs the other because of greater density. 2. Two unequal sized apples, each weighing the same because of varying density. Electronegativity is the variable factor that allows for one Ion of apparent equal value to displace another.
Microorganisms vary greatly in form, color, and habits, as well as in size. The variety is enormous. In one classification alone, the Diatomacea, it is estimated there are over 10,000 species, each of which has its own distinctive shape, pattern or design. Some microorganisms live only in sunlight, others thrive in the dark: some are aerobic requiring oxygen for their existence, others are anaerobic and grow in the absence air. They may be mobile or nonmobile. Microorganisims grow, in cold or hot water and even under ice. Microorganisms when introduced in water supplies, cause a variety of problems, many form coatings on piping, reducing flow and restricting valves, pumps, nozzles, or parts of the water distribution system. Filters and water softener media may be contaminated and operation impaired. In over 95% of well water installs to date, ECOsmarte has effectively controlled mircro organizims using low level ionization and oxygenating the water with the titanium oxidation electrode.
Disagreeable tastes and odors, may be produced either from living microorganisms or their decomposition. Discoloration and staining may be caused by microorganisms, primarily molds and slimes , these growths are difficult to control and exceedingly troublesome as reinfection often occurs. These growths need not be in the source water and may be seeded from the air or other sources. Well water containing iron manganese or sulfur, frequently, have associated bacteria which cause extremely troublesome and clogging growths. Sulfur waters frequently have thread-like growths, which appear on aerators and watering trays. These waters contain elemental sulfur often in colloidal form. This sulfur may be due to the oxidation of the hydrogen sulfide and action by sulfate reducing bacteria, which reduce sulfates to sulfides, and are often responsible for the production of black water.
Destruction, or Prevention of Microorganisms Treatment with Ionization and copper Ions produce kill rates for the following microorganisms at the following dosages in concentrations measured in parts per million. No scientific evidence exists that micro organisms are developing immunity to copper ions as has been well documented with various forms of chlorines.
|Copper ppm rqd|
|Coelastrum||0.05 - 0.33|
|Peridinium||0.50 - 2.00|
|Synura||0.12 - 0.25|
|Uroglena||0.05 - 0.20|
|Chara||0.10 - 0.50|
|Nitella, flexilis||0.10 - 0.18|
|Potamogeton||0.30 - 0.80|
|Asterionella||0.12 - 0.20|
|Synedra||0.36 - 0.50|
|Tabellaiia||0.12 - 0.50|